Waste on Saparua

Contents:

 

  1. Waste problem
  2. Tackling the waste problem
  3. Waste separation
  4. Landfill (TPA)
  5. Waste removal
  6. Workshops, education, clean-ups, kick-off
  7. Composting
  8. Obstacles

 

Annexes:

“Konsep Green School”

“Membuat kompos”

“Waste treatment and recycling on Bali: Temesi recycling”

 

Like all countries in the world, Indonesia must fight the environmental problems of modern times:

– deforestation related to settlement, traffic, agriculture, industry

– monoculture, soil depletion, pesticide use

– mining for resources, beach excavation

– air, water and soil pollution

 

These problems are caused by human activity and have a global influence on life on earth: the greenhouse effect and climate change, disturbance of ecosystems. These human activities require energy and resources. Production processes cause contamination of the air, water and soil while creating products that are then used, discarded and thrown away as waste.

 

 

Waste is a major environmental problem which impacts us all – even on small islands like Saparua.

 

This is a general report on the waste problem, specifically focusing on the island of Saparua. It was created after three years of environmental education projects conducted on Ambon and four years of planning and activities related to waste education and waste treatment facilities on Ihamah.

 

  1. Waste Problem

 

Modern waste consists primarily of plastics. A serious problem arises in places where humans are in the habit of throwing away plastic waste on the street, in rivers, on the seaside or at the edge of the forest, because such plastics do not degrade as they are inedible to soil organisms, molds or bacteria. Plastics fall outside of the natural cycle.

 

Organic waste:

In earlier times, humans lived in close contact with nature. Their dwellings were built from bamboo and palm leaves; furniture was made of wood and rattan. Bamboo was used to make tools; tree bark was pounded to form loincloths and cotton was used to weave textiles.

Everything that was used came from nature. Whenever something wore out (turned to waste), the people threw it away in the forest, in the river or on the beach. Soon it decomposed, just like in nature.

 

In nature, there is a constant cycle: plants obtain their nutrients from the soil. They are themselves the producers of nutrients for humans and animals. Humans and animals are the consumers. Often one consumer becomes a food source for another consumer. For example, a small fish is eaten by a larger one, like a tuna, which, in turn, is then eaten by humans. Whatever is not “eaten” by plants winds up directly on the ground as waste. Animals and humans also produce waste: excrement, hair, fingernails. Ultimately people and animals die and become waste themselves. All of the waste and remains of plants, animals and humans is called natural or organic waste. All of this plant, animal and human waste is cleaned up by the most important creatures in our living environment: soil organisms. These organisms, also known as reducers, eat everything up and then excrete it. Reducers include bacteria and molds which are responsible for the final stage of waste treatment: composting. They extract all the nutrients out of organic waste and return it to the soil where it dissolves in the groundwater. Plants then absorb theses nutrients through their roots and the cycle repeats itself. In this natural cycle, nothing is wasted!

 

 

Soil organisms:

Small, crawling creatures are often seen as a pest. We think they are unclean, something that must be eliminated. In fact, they are extremely beneficial to humans. They clean up all of our organic waste. Without these tiny soil organisms, we could never live on earth. The heaps of organic waste would simply grow too high.

 

Because these organisms thrive off of organic waste, they live between fallen leaves, underneath pieces of dead tree trunks, under rocks, in damp and dark spots. Worms are especially important. They live in the topsoil and underground. They carry leaves underground and process large amounts of organic waste.

 

These tiny organisms are the heroes of our living environment!

 

The waste problem can actually be summarized this way:

Anything a worm wants to eat is no problem for the living environment.

Anything a worm would not want to eat is not good for the environment. For those things, we have to think of a solution!!

 

Waste problem:

Humans produce materials that do not fit in the natural cycle. They have learned to make things out of metal, glass and ceramic. In the last century, about 80 years ago, synthetic materials were added to the list. These materials are made by using high amounts of energy to cause chemical reactions that turn minerals into all kinds of new substances. Plastics are the best known of these synthetic materials. There are many different types; some are made to last a long time, others are made to be used only once. Because they are produced in very large volumes, plastics are inexpensive to buy.

 

Plastics offer many advantages: they can be made into all kinds of shapes and colors and they are relatively durable. However, there are many disadvantages too. During production of plastics, many poisonous vapors are released into the air and into waste water. Many plastics contain so many chemical substances that they are actually hazardous to humans. For example, in plastic toys for children, there are far too many toxic substances! Whenever a plastic product becomes worn out and turns into waste, it does not decompose, rather it remains intact for a long time, adding to an ever-increasing mountain of waste plastic. This is because products made from plastic cannot be eaten by soil organisms. Plastics are poisonous to soil organisms.

Due to exposure to water and sunlight, plastic waste slowly degrades into smaller particles, yet it continues to be toxic. Animals often mistake plastic particles for food and they become sick after eating it. Plus, large quantities of toxins enter into the soil; leaking old batteries, paint chips, oil and gasoline waste, dumped cleaning agents and pesticides. In sites that are contaminated by these substances, plants are unable to grow and soil organisms die.

 

Plastic soup:

Large amounts of waste wind up in the ocean as the rivers wash garbage from the land out to sea or whenever boats dump waste overboard. A portion of this waste sinks to the ocean floor. In some places, you can dive down to see old television sets, furniture, fishing nets, old pots and pans, etc.

Researchers have studied floating waste in the Pacific Ocean and discovered that waste from all of the continents has started to drift together along the same current. Powerful sea currents cause all this material to float around in large circles until exposure to sunlight, salt and water cause everything to degrade into small particles, spreading poison throughout the ocean water. These large amounts of plastic waste in the ocean are known as “plastic soup.”

In addition to the Pacific Ocean plastic soup, there are at least three so-called “gyres” (heavy concentrations of plastic) in the seas around the world.

Experts estimate that at least 200 million kg of waste are floating in the Pacific Ocean! Such waste poisons sea turtles because they mistake plastic bags for jellyfish and eat them; fish become entangled in discarded fishnets and plastic crates. Aquatic birds also mistake plastic waste particles for food. Young albatrosses are fed floating lighters and bottle caps by their parents. These objects fill their stomachs but cannot be digested, so the young birds die of malnutrition.

Plastic never fully decomposes.

Water and sunlight slowly break down plastic into micro- and even nanoparticles (smaller than the point of a needle), but these particles never fully disappear. Animals often mistake them for food. They are a double threat because they also attract heavy metals. Such metals remain in the animal’s muscle tissue and influence their hormone levels (impacting fertility rates, for example). Research has shown that between 10 and 30 percent of the oceans’ fish contain toxins in their bodies! That means that the waste that we humans throw into the oceans winds up back on our own plates!

 

Even honey has been found to contain nanoparticles of plastic from the soil, water, plants and bees. Microplastics are processed intentionally into products like scrubs and toothpaste.

Efforts have been undertaken around the world to reduce plastic waste.

In the Netherlands, free plastic shopping bags have been banned as of 2016.

 

Estimated breakdown times of garbage in the sea:

Plywood: 1 to 3 years

Cotton clothing: 1 to 5 years

Cigarette butt: 1 to 5 years

Plastic bag: 10 to 20 years

Tin can: 50 years

Aluminum can: 200 years or longer

Plastic bottle: 450 years

Disposable diaper: 450 years

Synthetic clothing: 400 to 500 years

Nylon fishing line: 600 years

Glass bottle: 1,000 years or much longer

 

Trouw, February 28, 2015:

 

The time has come. After more than half a century of carrying groceries and fast food, serving as a sick bag for carsick kids or as a bag for picking up after the dog or lining the kitty litter box, the disposable plastic bag will be banned in the Netherlands as of January 1 next year. The announcement was made in the Hague by Dutch Secretary of Infrastructure and Environment Wilma Mansfeld on Thursday.

The measure targets the thin, easily tearing plastic bags that are given away for free at some stores. These bags are rarely used more than once, after which they wind up in nature where they might end up in the stomach of a rare sea turtle.

Actually it’s quite bizarre that an item that we use for such a short time stays around for a long time, floating like a ghost of our consumer society, even long after we ourselves have turned to dust. In several countries, these plastic nuisances have already been banned, including Rwanda. Even in China, a country that has a reputation for being environmentally unfriendly, had enough and banned the plastic bags.

The Netherlands will now follow suit. Too bad for the poor student who constantly forgets his shopping bag and then shoves a free plastic bag from the produce department into his pocket instead. Too bad for the penny-pincher who doesn’t want to pay for a re-usable shopping bag. And too bad for everyone who orders their dinner by delivery; will they have to pay to get a plastic bag with their döner kebab now?

Of course it’s extremely good news that steps are finally being taken to end this unnecessary waste of plastic. It will take a little getting used to, but before long, we will all forget about the little free plastic bag. It’s just too bad we can’t simply forget about all those bags that have already ended up in the environment.

 

Plastic: Facts and figures

Global production of plastic: Approx. 250 billion kg per year

Plastic in the oceans: approx.. 4.7 billion kg with another 12 million kg added every day

Use of plastic bags: 1 million per minute = 500 billion per year

Length of user of a plastic bag: 15 minutes on average

Approx. 8% of all crude oil is used to produce plastic.

 

  1. Tackling the waste problem

 

With the development of all kinds of technological and chemical products, there is a growing need to find solutions for what to do with used and discarded goods. Waste consisting of manmade products is a major problem around the world. In countries like the Netherlands, where plastic waste has around for a long time, people are finding solutions for reducing the amount of waste, for separating waste to be reused, for recycling or thoroughly cleaning up.

This is equally important in emerging countries like Indonesia and it must be reflected in sustainable policy and sustainable behavior. It impacts everyone: policymakers, the business community, schools, churches and residents of all ages!

 

 

To reach these goals, multiple actions have to be taken all at once:

  1. Facilities must be created for treating non-recyclable waste and for waste removal. Rules, supervision, agreements with businesses, the market and the transportation sector must be put into place. This is a job for regional governments, working in partnership with local governments.
  2. Education, socialization, clean-up activities, waste collection and selling of recyclable waste must all be organized. This is a job for local governments (with support from the regional level), together with village institutions such as women’s and youth associations, churches, mosques, puskesmas, trade associations, etc.
  3. Education and workshops must be provided. This is a job for schools and various associations.

 

The Three R’s

One approach followed around the world is the Three R’s: reduce, re-use, recycle. The first R (reduce) has top priority, followed by the second and then the third.

 

Recent research of garbage in the oceans around the world indicates that the amount of garbage is much larger than previously thought and that tremendous effort is needed to reduce the use on inorganic materials and to prevent them from winding up in nature.

 

Reduction of waste; mengurangi

Reduction means, above all, using fewer synthetic (inorganic) materials. For example, using cotton instead of synthetic fabrics for clothing; bamboo, rattan or wood instead of plastic for furnishings, using re-usable shopping bags, serving food on re-usable containers and dishes, and drinking water from a dispenser or drinking boiled water instead of bottled water.

If you have no choice but to buy products made of synthetic materials, then buy good-quality products so that you can use them for a longer period of time.

 

Re-using goods and repairing them; menggunakan kembali

In Maluku, most people already intensively re-use goods; crafting new goods out of old packaging, for example, is a form of re-use.

 

Recycling, making new materials out of old ones;

mendaur ulang

It is important that we recycle as much as possible to avoid waste and to prevent new resources from having to be mined from the earth.

 

When recycling, it’s important that you recognize, select and separate waste based on what type of material it is.

 

For example:

Used clothing that can be made into new materials or into paper

Used paper that can be made into new paper or cardboard

Used plastic that can be made into new plastic or other materials like fleece to make clothing for people in cold countries. Metals like tin, copper and iron. These can usually be melted down and re-used. Parangs can be made from old iron car parts!

Glass bottles and jars that can be thoroughly cleaned and used repeatedly for a very long time

Plastic bags, bottles, tubes: These do not decompose in nature and leave toxins behind. They can be recycled to create new plastic. Never burn them!

Hazardous waste like batteries: The toxic substances (various metals) are removed and re-used. This is not yet possible in Indonesia.

Electronic waste (from electronic devices such as mobile telephones): This consists of synthetic (plastic) materials and various metals. It is unlikely that this can be recycled in Indonesia at this time.

 

Natural (organic) waste that can be composted: Around 70% of garbage from home and garden is natural waste. This waste can be placed in a heap in one spot on your property, in a pit or in a compost container and left there to compost. This occurs naturally through the activity of soil organisms, molds and bacteria, so the compost that is produced can be used to grow vegetables and other plants. In the “Making compost” brochure (see annex), you will find a description of how everyone can easily create their own compost.

 

On the way to a circular economy

In the future, all production must be focused on making sure that everything can be recycled; this is known as the “cradle-to-cradle” principle. In Western countries, this is already in applied. It is a circular approach with recycling circuits for natural waste, metals, plastics, paper, textiles, rubber, glass, oil, etc. Organizing recycling is becoming increasingly efficient.

One interesting project called “Closing the Loops” was started in Africa in 2011 by Dutch entrepreneur Joost de Kluiver. Still-functioning mobile telephones from Europe are re-used in Africa and whenever they stop functioning they are bought up and shipped back to Europe where they are recycled. This project prevents people from burning defective mobile phones locally, a practice that causes severe pollution to the air, water and ground; plus, one ton of mobile telephones contains many precious materials including 200 times more gold than gold ore! This has been called urban mining.

 

Currently, Maluku has not yet reached a circular economy. There is still a large amount of unrecyclable waste to be dealt with and that must be removed. This means there is actually a fourth “R”: remove (mengolah, membereskan)

 

  1. Waste separation

 

It’s very important for waste to be separated and that it remains separated when it is turned in and removed.

There is a clear distinction between:

– organic (natural) waste

– inorganic waste

 

When it comes to separating waste, there are three major categories:

 

  1. Organic waste that stays at home:

– Natural waste: leaves, wood chips, sawdust, flowers, weeds, fruit peels and seeds, tea and coffee dregs, eggshells, small bits of paper

This  waste can be thrown away outdoors (in nature) or composted at home

– Slaughter waste is natural waste but it will begin to stink and attract flies and rats. Therefore, it should be buried, thrown in the sea, fed to other livestock or disposed of in a biopori.

– Cooked or prepared food is also natural waste but it will begin to stink and attract flies and rats. Therefore it should not be added to the compost heap but fed to livestock or buried in your kintal (soil organisms will quickly eat it up) or disposed of in a biopori.

 

 

Biopori:

A biopori is a narrow, deep hole in the ground that is made using a ground drill on your own kintal. It is 10-15 cm wide and up to 1.5 m deep. Natural waste can be disposed of in the biopori, as with a compost heap, but also remnants of cooked/prepared food and slaughter waste, as long as these are covered with a small amount of soil or with leaves. The natural waste inside a biopori is quickly broken down by the activity of soil organisms and by the plant roots that grow through it. With a few biopori on your property, you can easily get rid of all your food waste (if you do not have livestock to feed it to instead).

 

  1. Waste that can be recycled:

– Plastic bottle, cups and sturdy plastic packaging materials; clean and turn in for transport to Ambon.

– Cardboard boxes; turn in flattened and dry; can also be transported to Ambon.

– Glass bottles that are unbroken, metals: iron, aluminum, tin, copper; clean and turn in to be transported to Ambon or sell to a buyer.

 

 

  1. Non-recyclable waste:

– Hazardous waste: batteries, waste paint and paint brushes, old medicines, burnt-out lightbulbs, pesticides, electronic waste, gasoline and oil waste. Turn in separately; these must be packed and brought to the landfill. It would be even better if this waste could be removed to facilities where it can be recycled. This is currently being discussed with Malteng.

– All other types of waste: old clothing, shoes, thin plastic bags, broken glasses and dishes, scrap metal, old toys, cans, paper with heavy ink, painted wood, broken telephones, disposable diapers, items made of rubber: turn in to be brought to the landfill.

The goal must be to create less and less non-recyclable waste and more and more types of material that can be recycled.

 

Changing habits

For many residents of the Moluccan Islands it is a major adjustment to change to a new way of handling waste.

After distinguishing between the categories of waste, separation of waste must take place in the home/on the resident’s property. Green waste is thrown on the compost heap; recyclable waste must be cleaned if necessary and stored until turning in/being sold.

Residents will receive instructions per village/area over turning in/picking up waste, where this will take place and by whom.

Residents will also be involved in the removal/further treatment of waste, for example, the sale of waste or transportation to Ambon.

Composting can take place on any private property or on an area-wide basis.

People will also be involved with clean-up activities as well as necessary monitoring and supervision.

The fact that waste materials can be re-used to create many useful and interesting goods will also lead to all kinds of workshops and home crafts.

 

 

In Maluku, it is necessary to work on the following sequence:

pemilihan separating

pewadahan storage/placing in the correct container

pengumpulan collection/turning in

pengangkutan removal

pengolahan treatment

 

Bank sampah

A bank sampah is a collection point for waste that can be recycled and therefore has a value. The collector of this kind of waste can sell it by the kilo. In larger towns and cities there are permanent “banks” in operation. But a sampah bank can also operate during specific time periods, at specific places, be organized by a shop owner, the besi-tua-man, the pemerintah, or be linked to an actual bank so that the money earned can be directly deposited into an account.

 

  1. Landfill (TPA)

 

There are various methods for removing waste. In Maluku, it is common practice to throw waste onto heaps at the edge of the forest, on vacant patches of land or on the beach, in rivers or ravines. It is also common to burn waste. This may eliminate waste quickly, but it is very unfriendly to the environment. Because nowadays much of the waste being burnt is inorganic, these fires are very hazardous to health: the toxic substances are released more rapidly in the form of toxic smoke which damages air and soil quality and harms humans who inhale it.

 

TPA and TPS:

Inorganic waste that cannot be recycled can be collected and buried in a landfill (tempat pembuangan achir/TPA) to limit soil pollution to a single site. This is not an ideal situation, but it is better than allowing waste to drift around and eventually pollute the ocean. The methane gas that occurs in a landfill (caused by the decomposition of organic waste that is often buried along with other waste here) can be used as an energy source. At the TPA, a tempat pengolahan sampah (TPS) can also be built. This is a space or building where recyclable waste can be stored, sorted, shredded, cleaned and prepared to be shipped off/sold.

There are TPS sites in Indonesia where composting also takes after any organic waste is removed from the unsorted waste. However, it is much better to remove natural waste in advance and to compost it close to home, ideally on your own property.

 

 

 

In some countries, non-recyclable waste is now burned in large ovens at very high temperatures. This produces a kind of slag (plasmarok) that can be used for paving roads or as a construction material. Additionally, the heat generated can be converted into energy. Even old landfills in Europe are being excavated and used in this way. Such ovens are very expensive. They cause little air pollution (within the norm).

 

 

A TPA requires:

– A plot of land that can be rented or purchased or made available by the owner; this site will become contaminated.

– The site must be located centrally and must be readily accessible by trucks and flatbed trailers; far from streams and rivers and away from residential areas and buildings. A paved access road must be built.

– The site must be fenced in and it must be possible to close it off.

– Section by section, a pit must be dug and fitted with a plastic sheet on the bottom to prevent pollutants from seeping into the groundwater. Once a section is filled with waste, it can be buried underneath the soil from the section adjacent to it. In this way, multiple layers can be stacked on top of each other. Ventilation pipes must be built into the waste pile to enable methane gas to escape or to be collected for use as an energy source.

– Compost containers can be placed at the TPA where natural waste that cannot be composted by people at home (for example from a fallen tree) can be disposed of.

 

On Ambon, people have experience with installing and managing a TPA/TPS (Toisapu).

 

Temisi Recycling operates a similar facility on Bali, situated between Gianyar and Klungkung (see annex Bali Batin blog).

 

A TPS must include space, for example, for:

– a workspace with open windows

– a sealable office/canteen where tools and work clothes can also be stored.

– sorting tables, racks and containers for temporary storage

– shredder and wash basin

– sufficient floor space

– flatbed trailers and earth-moving machinery as necessary

 

 

Example of a TPA and TPS of 45 x 45 meters (as planned for Ihamahu).

 

  1. Waste removal

 

Waste removal must have a clear geographical scope (island, villages) to define which areas are included. This has consequences for:

– the make-up of the project groups/legal structure/responsibility and management.

– The TPA/TPS site. Only for Saparua? Or also for Nusalaut? Also for Haruku?

– The size of the required TPA and TPS.

– The required means of transportation (flatbed) trucks, boats).

– The required personnel.

– The required financing.

– The type of partnership with the business community.

– The partnership with Toisapu.

 

 

The larger the scope, the more complex the management and organization.

The larger the scope, the more effective the result.

If possible, operations will be started on a village/regional basis and expanded to an island-wide basis and eventually to the Lease Islands as a whole.

 

For waste removal, governments must work together as much as possible with one or more companies who carry out the waste removal and operate the TPA/TPS. Additionally, all kinds of social organizations must be involved as well as the general population by means of instruction, education and activities.

 

Advice on waste containers and waste collection:

Natural waste (see A. Ch. 3) is taken care of by each household individually.

Waste types listed under B. and C.: Must be collected and transported to the landfill.

This can be done by various methods:

 

Model A:

At a specific time, for example on Monday from 7 to 8 o’clock, people bring their waste to the collection point. There, a few workers will be stationed (TPA workers and two workers from the village) with various collection containers:

For plastic cups and bottles

For dry cardboard

For glass bottles (that are not sold to the besi tua man)

For metal (that is not sold to the besi tua man)

For hazardous waste

For non-recyclable waste

Arrangements can be made with the besi tua man. If possible, he may also be present at the agreed times to buy up any valuable waste products (according to the “bank sampah” principle).

 

 

 

The collected, separated waste is then transported by flatbed or truck to the TPA.

Larger waste items can also be turned in or a plan can be made at the pasar about how to pick up the item(s).

 

For houses located outside the village, arrangements can be made for when, how and where waste can be placed.

Plastic bottles and cups are to cleaned before turning in. At the TPA, they are temporarily stored inside the building and brought, for example, once or twice a month to Ambon to be recycled. This provides some income. If there is a shredder at the TPS, the plastic can be shredded and transported away in bales.

 

Addresses:

Batu Merah

Gunung Nona

Jalan Baru

Jalan A.Y. Patty

Poka

Batu Kerbau (Green Moluccas

 

Individual prices (2013)

Plastic aqua bottles: Rp 1,500 – 2,000 per kg

Plastic aqua cups: Rp 5,000 – 6,000 per kg

Other plastics (cups, bottles): Rp 1,000 per kg.

 

Hazardous waste is packed in plastic canvas at the TPA and disposed of.

Non-recyclable waste is disposed of at the TPA.

 

Waste containers at schools and shops must be managed by the concerned parties themselves. The pupils and shopkeepers bring the waste themselves to the collection site at the agreed time. In case of irregular/oversized waste, a request can be made for a flatbed pickup. Register and make arrangements at the pasar, Monday mornings between 7 and 8 o’clock. The men/women stationed there must receive detailed instruction.

Especially during the stage when the waste management plan is being rolled out, it is important to keep residents well informed. The assistants from the individual villages must monitor and provide information, for example, performing an inspection during school break periods.

 

The advantage of Model A is that people learn which types of waste exist. They learn to dispose of waste in the correct containers at the collection point!!! This model is also relatively inexpensive. The waste pickup truck does not need to drive through the entire village. Fewer waste containers are required. A precondition (and disadvantage?) is that the residents must take the effort to temporarily store their waste and then deliver it at the agreed time.

Recommendation: Definitely during the start-up stage of the project we recommend choosing Model A. In that case, everyone in the village is responsible for separating their own waste and turning it in properly. It also increases understanding and awareness of separating waste. This model also ensures better monitoring.

For the workers who must transport the waste to the TPA, the task is clear and manageable.

 

Model B:

A set of two waste containers is placed in each sector, including at public buildings and shops. People can deposit their waste in the correct container at any time: one container is for recyclable waste, the other for non-recyclables. The containers are emptied once or twice a week and the waste is transported to the TPA where it is cleaned as necessary, sorted, shredded, packed, shipped off or disposed of.

It is also possible to arrange for each sector’s containers to be transported to a collection point at a set time.

Hazardous waste must be deposited separately in this case, for example, at the municipal government office. Cardboard must also be separated, otherwise it becomes wet.

Oversized waste can be collected by appointment.

 

The advantage of this model is that people can dispose of their waste at any time.

The disadvantage is that people will make mistakes. There will always be people who mix different types of waste due to carelessness, indifference or lack of understanding. That means long-term instruction and monitoring are required. The waste will also be exposed to water damage from rain while it is stored in the containers. Dogs may also sniff around in the containers and tip them over.

The waste must also be further sorted, so more work is required. The waste collection trucks must also drive by more locations and the drivers must do more work themselves.

 

Model C:

Everyone is issued two waste containers of their own, each clearly labeled with an identification number and the owner’s name: one container is for recyclable waste, the other is for non-recyclables. Natural (organic) waste must be composted, either at home or collectively in the neighborhood.

At a set time, the containers must be set out on the curb or brought to collection sites. The waste collection trucks drive by and collect the waste in collection containers which are then transported to the TPA/TPS.

Hazardous waste and cardboard must be delivered separately (during dry weather), or delivered to a specific address.

In case of irregular/oversized waste, residents must contact the TPA or the municipal government office. Such waste can be collected, for example, on a monthly basis.

 

The advantage of this model is that every household has responsibility and control over its own waste.

The disadvantage is that the start-up costs are high and involve buying many plastic containers.

This model would be feasible once waste separation and removal have already been in place and functioning for a while.

 

  1. Workshops, education, clean-ups, kick-off

 

Workshops and education involve all kinds of activities that serve the purpose of providing instruction, changing habits, increasing understanding and traction and stimulating positive actions and environmental behavior among residents. These activities may include monitoring and instruction, lessons, workshops, clean-up actions, etc.

All kinds of institutions play are part in these activities:

Pemerintah and saniri, schools, churches, mosques, women’s associations, youth clubs.

 

In Maluku, a number of these educational activities are already in practice: in churches, responsibility for the living environment is regularly incorporated into biblical teachings. Clean-up activities are now included under the scope of the church’s regular work. A plan has been put forward for “Plastic-Free Wednesdays.” The living environment is a topic that is even discussed by children at Sunday school.

Another popular activity among the women’s association PKK and some other groups (such as schools) is to use empty packaging to create arts and crafts. This form of re-using is seen as a method of recycling and the groups involved are proud to take part in it. These activities give packaging a second life and the products can be sold or used around the house.

 

In the Moluccas, people are used to giving presentations and teaching lessons in front of an audience. A more effective method is to hold a workshop or to work with practical materials and real-life situations. People always learn best by doing, interacting and experiencing things firsthand.

 

A great amount of material has already been developed in the area of environmental information. However, this has hardly been customized to focus on specific situations such as Saparua where people are still in the early stages of raising awareness and there are currently no facilities for waste removal.

The following educational materials were developed for the Ambon municipal government from 2010 to 2012 under the “Ambon hijau dan bersih” project:

– Brochures for the general public: “Ambon tanpa sampah” and “Membuat kompos”

– Green School concept; see annex “Konsep green school.”

– Loose-leaf annual work plan with recommendations for environmental education lessons on the primary school level.

 

Green School:

The term “green” is already fairly well-known in Maluku, although its full meaning still needs to be developed. “Green School” is a term used internationally for a school that is committed to operating sustainably, both in terms of education and with regard to its facilities management.

In the case of Maluku, a “Green School” concept has been formulated which can be implemented and monitored without the use of extensive materials or supplies. On Ambon Island, a fierce competition took place among the schools in 2012. Schools are still doing their best to adhere to the eight conditions (see annex “Konsep green school”). The competition to become the best “Green School” has unfortunately not been continued after 2012.

 

Clean-up activities:

Because of the heavy amount of litter, it is necessary to hold clean-up activities involving large groups of people, ideally all residents. This makes people directly aware of the litter problem created by their own waste and that of others. Information about the various types of waste and their environmental impacts can be provided in a very practical way. People will start a conversation with one another about these topics. They will become more aware of future polluters and their own behavior.

This is a very useful activity in establishing a social network. Perhaps is must be repeated annually (for example, around Christmastime) because there will still be local residents who litter, and waste from elsewhere will wash up on the beaches.

 

Taking advantage of social structures:

In most of the villages, people are used to volunteering their time for the good of the public (for example, building a new church, cleaning/weeding public spaces, or lending support to a bereaved family). This is organized on a sectorial basis or through various associations. These organizations can be used to contribute to environmental management, to create compost sites and hold clean-up activities. This also ensures social monitoring.

 

Taking advantage of social media:

Social media is growing in popularity in Indonesia. This provides an opportunity to stimulate and challenge people to take action. One example is a recent action in Raja Ampat in which various groups of residents worked together to hold clean-up activities. See www.stayrajaampat.com/?p=4206

 

Fishing for Litter:

The global shipping industry is a major source of litter that pollutes the ocean. In Maluku this primarily involves passenger boats. Governments must start a dialog with ship owners. Waste containers and collection containers must be placed on board ships and at the docks, ideally including clear labels for how to separate waste.

 

 

The municipal government of Ambon has commissioned a speedboat to trawl for litter in Amboina Bay.

 

Kick-off:

It is very important to make the necessary preparations for kicking off organized waste management.

The various elements must all be put in place at the same time:

– the landfill must be ready

– the organizational structure must be clear; arrangements made, responsibilities delegated.

– waste management workers must be instructed and equipped with the necessary supplies.

– Workshops and information sessions on composting must already have been held.

– Residents must already have received information on the types of waste and how to separate them.

– Instruction must already have been provided on the method of waste delivery, the time and location.

– A clear system for monitoring and possible sanctions must be in place.

 

Environment Week

It is advisable to involve the entire village in the kick-off for the waste management program, for example, by organizing a week of activities to raise awareness. This can include:

– An environmental project at the schools

– Discussions within the churches and mosques

– Workshops for women

– As the highlight: clean-up of the entire village. Ideally this can be combined with a large makan patita (without plastic).

Perhaps TVRI can be invited to attend.

 

Various informative websites:

www.temesirecycling.org

www.stichtingdenoordzee.nl

www.plastcsoupfoundation.org

www.marlisco.eu

www.youtube.com/watch?v=017bBeXhYz4: (Sources and impact of marine litter)

www.rappler.com/nation/69533

www.planeetzee.be

www.milieucentraal.nl

www.cleanuptheworld.org

www.closingtheloop.eu

www.plastictasvrij.nl

www.svzo.nl (Voluntary Litter Clean-up Foundation / Stichting Vrijwillige Afvalopruimers)

www.dw.de/masalah-sampah-plastik

 

  1. Composting

 

Composting is the natural process by which natural (organic) waste is consumed by soil organisms and broken down through the activity of bacteria and mold. The waste is converted into new nutrients which can be absorbed from the soil by the roots of plants. Composting is one phase in the continual natural cycle. It has been going on for thousands of years in a continuing food cycle (see Ch. 1).

 

Organic waste consists of all waste from living or dead organisms. This means it is naturally degradable and poses no threat to the environment. You can simply dispose of it in your garden or in the forest. Even if it winds up in the ocean, it is still not a threat. Microscopic organisms, molds and bacteria make sure that it quickly decomposes/converts into new nutrients.

 

But why would you simply discard this natural waste? It can be used to make fertile compost to grow flowers or vegetables. In that case, it’s important not to mix it with other types of waste: it has to be appetizing to the microscopic organisms!

This organic waste can be used to create compost for any home or any small group of homes. If the waste has to be stored for a longer period of time, it quickly begins to rot and decay (compost). That’s why there must be a place close to home where this waste can be immediately deposited and composted. In the brochure (see annex), there is a description of how you can create and manage your own compost site.

 

Examples of compost sites

It is recommended that you do not throw cooked or prepared foods or slaughter waste onto the compost heap. These waste materials stink and attract rats and flies. Excrement from carnivorous animals (like dogs and cats) should also not be thrown onto the compost heap.

 

Examples of natural waste that can easily be composted:

– fallen leaves and flowers

– broken down twigs

– fruit peels

– vegetable waste

– wood shavings

– unfinished wood scraps

– crushed eggshells

– tea and coffee dregs

– weeds

– (small amounts of) unprinted, shredded paper (egg cartons, for example).

 

When composting, a distinction is made between “brown” and “green” organic waste. Brown waste refers to dryer, harder materials like tree bark, twigs, dried out plants, hard fruit skins. Green waste refers to fresh grass, vegetable waste, soft fruit waste. It is best to alternate between green and brown waste and to mix the two.

 

In the annex “Membuat kompos,” you can read about how to compost.

 

  1. Obstacles

 

Initiatives

Several years ago, a proposal was put forward together with a plan to create a landfill and implement waste removal for the village of Ihamahu (Sampahgroep Ihamahu: Charlie Hitipeuw, Magda Pattiiha, John Pattiiha, Ada Lilipaly-de Voogt).

In Itawaka, multiple discussions have taken place between the raja and saniri members to bring attention to the waste problem and to take steps toward reducing and eliminating it (Max Wattimena).

In Tuhaha, the pastor and his wife have arranged for an information session to be held for the women’s association.

In Haria, a proposal is in the making, including strong plans for clean-up activities. The proposal extends to the entire island, possibly also including Nusalauy and Haruku (Kees Lafeber).

 

 

Obstacles

Various experiences have shown that there are a number of obstacles to watch out for:

– The most important is the difference between management culture and organizational structure. People are accustomed to a top-down structure in which it is uncommon and undesirable to come forward with bottom-up initiatives. This also causes people to take less personal responsibility.

– People are used to waiting things out and shrugging responsibility; also because it is unknown territory that affects all of society. Governments are afraid they will not gain any traction; ordinary citizens either do not dare to come forward with plans or they lack adequate oversight over the issue.

– People have other priorities even though they acknowledge the problem.

– There is a lack of understanding that, with the modernization of society and increasing prosperity and consumption, people have an obligation to view sustainability as a starting principle and to take care of the environment.

– People lack knowledge of the impacts of waste and other threats to the environment.

– Habits with regard to waste can be improved in a number of ways. Many people simply throw their waste (empty packages) on the ground, sweep it off their own kintal or dump it in the sea.

– People treat their own living environment recklessly: coral reefs are being trampled, the beaches excavated, old-growth forests chopped down without replenishment, endangered species hunted.

– People lack discipline when it comes to pledges and responsibilities. Commitments are not set in stone and are not always fulfilled, or they are changed. There is a great deal of ad-hoc policy.

 

In Ihamahu, a plan reached an advanced stage in 2012: a plot of community property was made available to serve as a landfill. Specific plans were made for the delivery of waste and a proposal was submitted by an official from the province. Information sessions were held with various stakeholders. Yet this plan is now on ice because Ibu Raja took over leadership as the head of the local PKK. She was not open to input, either from the Netherlands or from Ihamahu itself. Following multiple confrontations, she stepped down, but then Bapa Raja also began to run the plan into the ground. The saniri made no effort to ensure that the project would succeed. In 2015, a new raja election took place. There was hope that this would bring new stimulus for the sampah cause.

 

This example illustrates how plans can run aground because, as in this case, people watch and wait for the raja who is expected to direct everything (or not). This calls for a working project group per village that makes approval or disapproval of plans independent of any single individual, even if it is the raja. However, this is a Western approach… Furthermore, there are signs from Maluku Province that well-constructed initiatives will receive support.

Waste on Saparua

Contents:

1. Waste problem
2. Tackling the waste problem
3. Waste separation
4. Landfill (TPA)
5. Waste removal
6. Workshops, education, clean-ups, kick-off
7. Composting
8. Obstacles

Annexes:
“Konsep Green School”
“Membuat kompos”
“Waste treatment and recycling on Bali: Temesi recycling”

Like all countries in the world, Indonesia must fight the environmental problems of modern times:
– deforestation related to settlement, traffic, agriculture, industry
– monoculture, soil depletion, pesticide use
– mining for resources, beach excavation
– air, water and soil pollution

These problems are caused by human activity and have a global influence on life on earth: the greenhouse effect and climate change, disturbance of ecosystems. These human activities require energy and resources. Production processes cause contamination of the air, water and soil while creating products that are then used, discarded and thrown away as waste.
Waste is a major environmental problem which impacts us all – even on small islands like Saparua.

This is a general report on the waste problem, specifically focusing on the island of Saparua. It was created after three years of environmental education projects conducted on Ambon and four years of planning and activities related to waste education and waste treatment facilities on Ihamah.

1. Waste Problem

Modern waste consists primarily of plastics. A serious problem arises in places where humans are in the habit of throwing away plastic waste on the street, in rivers, on the seaside or at the edge of the forest, because such plastics do not degrade as they are inedible to soil organisms, molds or bacteria. Plastics fall outside of the natural cycle.

Organic waste:
In earlier times, humans lived in close contact with nature. Their dwellings were built from bamboo and palm leaves; furniture was made of wood and rattan. Bamboo was used to make tools; tree bark was pounded to form loincloths and cotton was used to weave textiles.
Everything that was used came from nature. Whenever something wore out (turned to waste), the people threw it away in the forest, in the river or on the beach. Soon it decomposed, just like in nature.

In nature, there is a constant cycle: plants obtain their nutrients from the soil. They are themselves the producers of nutrients for humans and animals. Humans and animals are the consumers. Often one consumer becomes a food source for another consumer. For example, a small fish is eaten by a larger one, like a tuna, which, in turn, is then eaten by humans. Whatever is not “eaten” by plants winds up directly on the ground as waste. Animals and humans also produce waste: excrement, hair, fingernails. Ultimately people and animals die and become waste themselves. All of the waste and remains of plants, animals and humans is called natural or organic waste. All of this plant, animal and human waste is cleaned up by the most important creatures in our living environment: soil organisms. These organisms, also known as reducers, eat everything up and then excrete it. Reducers include bacteria and molds which are responsible for the final stage of waste treatment: composting. They extract all the nutrients out of organic waste and return it to the soil where it dissolves in the groundwater. Plants then absorb theses nutrients through their roots and the cycle repeats itself. In this natural cycle, nothing is wasted!
Soil organisms:
Small, crawling creatures are often seen as a pest. We think they are unclean, something that must be eliminated. In fact, they are extremely beneficial to humans. They clean up all of our organic waste. Without these tiny soil organisms, we could never live on earth. The heaps of organic waste would simply grow too high.

Because these organisms thrive off of organic waste, they live between fallen leaves, underneath pieces of dead tree trunks, under rocks, in damp and dark spots. Worms are especially important. They live in the topsoil and underground. They carry leaves underground and process large amounts of organic waste.

These tiny organisms are the heroes of our living environment!

The waste problem can actually be summarized this way:
Anything a worm wants to eat is no problem for the living environment.
Anything a worm would not want to eat is not good for the environment. For those things, we have to think of a solution!!

Waste problem:
Humans produce materials that do not fit in the natural cycle. They have learned to make things out of metal, glass and ceramic. In the last century, about 80 years ago, synthetic materials were added to the list. These materials are made by using high amounts of energy to cause chemical reactions that turn minerals into all kinds of new substances. Plastics are the best known of these synthetic materials. There are many different types; some are made to last a long time, others are made to be used only once. Because they are produced in very large volumes, plastics are inexpensive to buy.

Plastics offer many advantages: they can be made into all kinds of shapes and colors and they are relatively durable. However, there are many disadvantages too. During production of plastics, many poisonous vapors are released into the air and into waste water. Many plastics contain so many chemical substances that they are actually hazardous to humans. For example, in plastic toys for children, there are far too many toxic substances! Whenever a plastic product becomes worn out and turns into waste, it does not decompose, rather it remains intact for a long time, adding to an ever-increasing mountain of waste plastic. This is because products made from plastic cannot be eaten by soil organisms. Plastics are poisonous to soil organisms.
Due to exposure to water and sunlight, plastic waste slowly degrades into smaller particles, yet it continues to be toxic. Animals often mistake plastic particles for food and they become sick after eating it. Plus, large quantities of toxins enter into the soil; leaking old batteries, paint chips, oil and gasoline waste, dumped cleaning agents and pesticides. In sites that are contaminated by these substances, plants are unable to grow and soil organisms die.

Plastic soup:
Large amounts of waste wind up in the ocean as the rivers wash garbage from the land out to sea or whenever boats dump waste overboard. A portion of this waste sinks to the ocean floor. In some places, you can dive down to see old television sets, furniture, fishing nets, old pots and pans, etc.
Researchers have studied floating waste in the Pacific Ocean and discovered that waste from all of the continents has started to drift together along the same current. Powerful sea currents cause all this material to float around in large circles until exposure to sunlight, salt and water cause everything to degrade into small particles, spreading poison throughout the ocean water. These large amounts of plastic waste in the ocean are known as “plastic soup.”
In addition to the Pacific Ocean plastic soup, there are at least three so-called “gyres” (heavy concentrations of plastic) in the seas around the world.
Experts estimate that at least 200 million kg of waste are floating in the Pacific Ocean! Such waste poisons sea turtles because they mistake plastic bags for jellyfish and eat them; fish become entangled in discarded fishnets and plastic crates. Aquatic birds also mistake plastic waste particles for food. Young albatrosses are fed floating lighters and bottle caps by their parents. These objects fill their stomachs but cannot be digested, so the young birds die of malnutrition.
Plastic never fully decomposes.
Water and sunlight slowly break down plastic into micro- and even nanoparticles (smaller than the point of a needle), but these particles never fully disappear. Animals often mistake them for food. They are a double threat because they also attract heavy metals. Such metals remain in the animal’s muscle tissue and influence their hormone levels (impacting fertility rates, for example). Research has shown that between 10 and 30 percent of the oceans’ fish contain toxins in their bodies! That means that the waste that we humans throw into the oceans winds up back on our own plates!

Even honey has been found to contain nanoparticles of plastic from the soil, water, plants and bees. Microplastics are processed intentionally into products like scrubs and toothpaste.
Efforts have been undertaken around the world to reduce plastic waste.
In the Netherlands, free plastic shopping bags have been banned as of 2016.

Estimated breakdown times of garbage in the sea:
Plywood: 1 to 3 years
Cotton clothing: 1 to 5 years
Cigarette butt: 1 to 5 years
Plastic bag: 10 to 20 years
Tin can: 50 years
Aluminum can: 200 years or longer
Plastic bottle: 450 years
Disposable diaper: 450 years
Synthetic clothing: 400 to 500 years
Nylon fishing line: 600 years
Glass bottle: 1,000 years or much longer

Trouw, February 28, 2015:

The time has come. After more than half a century of carrying groceries and fast food, serving as a sick bag for carsick kids or as a bag for picking up after the dog or lining the kitty litter box, the disposable plastic bag will be banned in the Netherlands as of January 1 next year. The announcement was made in the Hague by Dutch Secretary of Infrastructure and Environment Wilma Mansfeld on Thursday.
The measure targets the thin, easily tearing plastic bags that are given away for free at some stores. These bags are rarely used more than once, after which they wind up in nature where they might end up in the stomach of a rare sea turtle.
Actually it’s quite bizarre that an item that we use for such a short time stays around for a long time, floating like a ghost of our consumer society, even long after we ourselves have turned to dust. In several countries, these plastic nuisances have already been banned, including Rwanda. Even in China, a country that has a reputation for being environmentally unfriendly, had enough and banned the plastic bags.
The Netherlands will now follow suit. Too bad for the poor student who constantly forgets his shopping bag and then shoves a free plastic bag from the produce department into his pocket instead. Too bad for the penny-pincher who doesn’t want to pay for a re-usable shopping bag. And too bad for everyone who orders their dinner by delivery; will they have to pay to get a plastic bag with their döner kebab now?
Of course it’s extremely good news that steps are finally being taken to end this unnecessary waste of plastic. It will take a little getting used to, but before long, we will all forget about the little free plastic bag. It’s just too bad we can’t simply forget about all those bags that have already ended up in the environment.

Plastic: Facts and figures
Global production of plastic: Approx. 250 billion kg per year
Plastic in the oceans: approx.. 4.7 billion kg with another 12 million kg added every day
Use of plastic bags: 1 million per minute = 500 billion per year
Length of user of a plastic bag: 15 minutes on average
Approx. 8% of all crude oil is used to produce plastic.

2. Tackling the waste problem

With the development of all kinds of technological and chemical products, there is a growing need to find solutions for what to do with used and discarded goods. Waste consisting of manmade products is a major problem around the world. In countries like the Netherlands, where plastic waste has around for a long time, people are finding solutions for reducing the amount of waste, for separating waste to be reused, for recycling or thoroughly cleaning up.
This is equally important in emerging countries like Indonesia and it must be reflected in sustainable policy and sustainable behavior. It impacts everyone: policymakers, the business community, schools, churches and residents of all ages!
To reach these goals, multiple actions have to be taken all at once:
1. Facilities must be created for treating non-recyclable waste and for waste removal. Rules, supervision, agreements with businesses, the market and the transportation sector must be put into place. This is a job for regional governments, working in partnership with local governments.
2. Education, socialization, clean-up activities, waste collection and selling of recyclable waste must all be organized. This is a job for local governments (with support from the regional level), together with village institutions such as women’s and youth associations, churches, mosques, puskesmas, trade associations, etc.
3. Education and workshops must be provided. This is a job for schools and various associations.

The Three R’s
One approach followed around the world is the Three R’s: reduce, re-use, recycle. The first R (reduce) has top priority, followed by the second and then the third.

Recent research of garbage in the oceans around the world indicates that the amount of garbage is much larger than previously thought and that tremendous effort is needed to reduce the use on inorganic materials and to prevent them from winding up in nature.

Reduction of waste; mengurangi
Reduction means, above all, using fewer synthetic (inorganic) materials. For example, using cotton instead of synthetic fabrics for clothing; bamboo, rattan or wood instead of plastic for furnishings, using re-usable shopping bags, serving food on re-usable containers and dishes, and drinking water from a dispenser or drinking boiled water instead of bottled water.
If you have no choice but to buy products made of synthetic materials, then buy good-quality products so that you can use them for a longer period of time.

Re-using goods and repairing them; menggunakan kembali
In Maluku, most people already intensively re-use goods; crafting new goods out of old packaging, for example, is a form of re-use.

Recycling, making new materials out of old ones;
mendaur ulang
It is important that we recycle as much as possible to avoid waste and to prevent new resources from having to be mined from the earth.

When recycling, it’s important that you recognize, select and separate waste based on what type of material it is.

For example:
Used clothing that can be made into new materials or into paper
Used paper that can be made into new paper or cardboard
Used plastic that can be made into new plastic or other materials like fleece to make clothing for people in cold countries.
Metals like tin, copper and iron. These can usually be melted down and re-used. Parangs can be made from old iron car parts!
Glass bottles and jars that can be thoroughly cleaned and used repeatedly for a very long time
Plastic bags, bottles, tubes: These do not decompose in nature and leave toxins behind. They can be recycled to create new plastic. Never burn them!
Hazardous waste like batteries: The toxic substances (various metals) are removed and re-used. This is not yet possible in Indonesia.
Electronic waste (from electronic devices such as mobile telephones): This consists of synthetic (plastic) materials and various metals. It is unlikely that this can be recycled in Indonesia at this time.

Natural (organic) waste that can be composted: Around 70% of garbage from home and garden is natural waste. This waste can be placed in a heap in one spot on your property, in a pit or in a compost container and left there to compost. This occurs naturally through the activity of soil organisms, molds and bacteria, so the compost that is produced can be used to grow vegetables and other plants. In the “Making compost” brochure (see annex), you will find a description of how everyone can easily create their own compost.

On the way to a circular economy
In the future, all production must be focused on making sure that everything can be recycled; this is known as the “cradle-to-cradle” principle. In Western countries, this is already in applied. It is a circular approach with recycling circuits for natural waste, metals, plastics, paper, textiles, rubber, glass, oil, etc. Organizing recycling is becoming increasingly efficient.
One interesting project called “Closing the Loops” was started in Africa in 2011 by Dutch entrepreneur Joost de Kluiver. Still-functioning mobile telephones from Europe are re-used in Africa and whenever they stop functioning they are bought up and shipped back to Europe where they are recycled. This project prevents people from burning defective mobile phones locally, a practice that causes severe pollution to the air, water and ground; plus, one ton of mobile telephones contains many precious materials including 200 times more gold than gold ore! This has been called urban mining.

Currently, Maluku has not yet reached a circular economy. There is still a large amount of unrecyclable waste to be dealt with and that must be removed. This means there is actually a fourth “R”: remove (mengolah, membereskan)

3. Waste separation

It’s very important for waste to be separated and that it remains separated when it is turned in and removed.
There is a clear distinction between:
– organic (natural) waste
– inorganic waste

When it comes to separating waste, there are three major categories:

A. Organic waste that stays at home:
– Natural waste: leaves, wood chips, sawdust, flowers, weeds, fruit peels and seeds, tea and coffee dregs, eggshells, small bits of paper
This waste can be thrown away outdoors (in nature) or composted at home
– Slaughter waste is natural waste but it will begin to stink and attract flies and rats. Therefore, it should be buried, thrown in the sea, fed to other livestock or disposed of in a biopori.
– Cooked or prepared food is also natural waste but it will begin to stink and attract flies and rats. Therefore it should not be added to the compost heap but fed to livestock or buried in your kintal (soil organisms will quickly eat it up) or disposed of in a biopori.
Biopori:
A biopori is a narrow, deep hole in the ground that is made using a ground drill on your own kintal. It is 10-15 cm wide and up to 1.5 m deep. Natural waste can be disposed of in the biopori, as with a compost heap, but also remnants of cooked/prepared food and slaughter waste, as long as these are covered with a small amount of soil or with leaves. The natural waste inside a biopori is quickly broken down by the activity of soil organisms and by the plant roots that grow through it. With a few biopori on your property, you can easily get rid of all your food waste (if you do not have livestock to feed it to instead).

B. Waste that can be recycled:
– Plastic bottle, cups and sturdy plastic packaging materials; clean and turn in for transport to Ambon.
– Cardboard boxes; turn in flattened and dry; can also be transported to Ambon.
– Glass bottles that are unbroken, metals: iron, aluminum, tin, copper; clean and turn in to be transported to Ambon or sell to a buyer.
C. Non-recyclable waste:
– Hazardous waste: batteries, waste paint and paint brushes, old medicines, burnt-out lightbulbs, pesticides, electronic waste, gasoline and oil waste. Turn in separately; these must be packed and brought to the landfill. It would be even better if this waste could be removed to facilities where it can be recycled. This is currently being discussed with Malteng.
– All other types of waste: old clothing, shoes, thin plastic bags, broken glasses and dishes, scrap metal, old toys, cans, paper with heavy ink, painted wood, broken telephones, disposable diapers, items made of rubber: turn in to be brought to the landfill.
The goal must be to create less and less non-recyclable waste and more and more types of material that can be recycled.

Changing habits
For many residents of the Moluccan Islands it is a major adjustment to change to a new way of handling waste.
After distinguishing between the categories of waste, separation of waste must take place in the home/on the resident’s property. Green waste is thrown on the compost heap; recyclable waste must be cleaned if necessary and stored until turning in/being sold.
Residents will receive instructions per village/area over turning in/picking up waste, where this will take place and by whom.
Residents will also be involved in the removal/further treatment of waste, for example, the sale of waste or transportation to Ambon.
Composting can take place on any private property or on an area-wide basis.
People will also be involved with clean-up activities as well as necessary monitoring and supervision.
The fact that waste materials can be re-used to create many useful and interesting goods will also lead to all kinds of workshops and home crafts.
In Maluku, it is necessary to work on the following sequence:
pemilihan separating
pewadahan storage/placing in the correct container
pengumpulan collection/turning in
pengangkutan removal
pengolahan treatment

Bank sampah
A bank sampah is a collection point for waste that can be recycled and therefore has a value. The collector of this kind of waste can sell it by the kilo. In larger towns and cities there are permanent “banks” in operation. But a sampah bank can also operate during specific time periods, at specific places, be organized by a shop owner, the besi-tua-man, the pemerintah, or be linked to an actual bank so that the money earned can be directly deposited into an account.

4. Landfill (TPA)

There are various methods for removing waste. In Maluku, it is common practice to throw waste onto heaps at the edge of the forest, on vacant patches of land or on the beach, in rivers or ravines. It is also common to burn waste. This may eliminate waste quickly, but it is very unfriendly to the environment. Because nowadays much of the waste being burnt is inorganic, these fires are very hazardous to health: the toxic substances are released more rapidly in the form of toxic smoke which damages air and soil quality and harms humans who inhale it.

TPA and TPS:
Inorganic waste that cannot be recycled can be collected and buried in a landfill (tempat pembuangan achir/TPA) to limit soil pollution to a single site. This is not an ideal situation, but it is better than allowing waste to drift around and eventually pollute the ocean. The methane gas that occurs in a landfill (caused by the decomposition of organic waste that is often buried along with other waste here) can be used as an energy source. At the TPA, a tempat pengolahan sampah (TPS) can also be built. This is a space or building where recyclable waste can be stored, sorted, shredded, cleaned and prepared to be shipped off/sold.
There are TPS sites in Indonesia where composting also takes after any organic waste is removed from the unsorted waste. However, it is much better to remove natural waste in advance and to compost it close to home, ideally on your own property.

In some countries, non-recyclable waste is now burned in large ovens at very high temperatures. This produces a kind of slag (plasmarok) that can be used for paving roads or as a construction material. Additionally, the heat generated can be converted into energy. Even old landfills in Europe are being excavated and used in this way. Such ovens are very expensive. They cause little air pollution (within the norm).
A TPA requires:
– A plot of land that can be rented or purchased or made available by the owner; this site will become contaminated.
– The site must be located centrally and must be readily accessible by trucks and flatbed trailers; far from streams and rivers and away from residential areas and buildings. A paved access road must be built.
– The site must be fenced in and it must be possible to close it off.
– Section by section, a pit must be dug and fitted with a plastic sheet on the bottom to prevent pollutants from seeping into the groundwater. Once a section is filled with waste, it can be buried underneath the soil from the section adjacent to it. In this way, multiple layers can be stacked on top of each other. Ventilation pipes must be built into the waste pile to enable methane gas to escape or to be collected for use as an energy source.
– Compost containers can be placed at the TPA where natural waste that cannot be composted by people at home (for example from a fallen tree) can be disposed of.

On Ambon, people have experience with installing and managing a TPA/TPS (Toisapu).

Temisi Recycling operates a similar facility on Bali, situated between Gianyar and Klungkung (see annex Bali Batin blog).

A TPS must include space, for example, for:
– a workspace with open windows
– a sealable office/canteen where tools and work clothes can also be stored.
– sorting tables, racks and containers for temporary storage
– shredder and wash basin
– sufficient floor space
– flatbed trailers and earth-moving machinery as necessary
Example of a TPA and TPS of 45 x 45 meters (as planned for Ihamahu).

5. Waste removal

Waste removal must have a clear geographical scope (island, villages) to define which areas are included. This has consequences for:
– the make-up of the project groups/legal structure/responsibility and management.
– The TPA/TPS site. Only for Saparua? Or also for Nusalaut? Also for Haruku?
– The size of the required TPA and TPS.
– The required means of transportation (flatbed) trucks, boats).
– The required personnel.
– The required financing.
– The type of partnership with the business community.
– The partnership with Toisapu.
The larger the scope, the more complex the management and organization.
The larger the scope, the more effective the result.
If possible, operations will be started on a village/regional basis and expanded to an island-wide basis and eventually to the Lease Islands as a whole.

For waste removal, governments must work together as much as possible with one or more companies who carry out the waste removal and operate the TPA/TPS. Additionally, all kinds of social organizations must be involved as well as the general population by means of instruction, education and activities.

Advice on waste containers and waste collection:
Natural waste (see A. Ch. 3) is taken care of by each household individually.
Waste types listed under B. and C.: Must be collected and transported to the landfill.
This can be done by various methods:

Model A:
At a specific time, for example on Monday from 7 to 8 o’clock, people bring their waste to the collection point. There, a few workers will be stationed (TPA workers and two workers from the village) with various collection containers:
For plastic cups and bottles
For dry cardboard
For glass bottles (that are not sold to the besi tua man)
For metal (that is not sold to the besi tua man)
For hazardous waste
For non-recyclable waste
Arrangements can be made with the besi tua man. If possible, he may also be present at the agreed times to buy up any valuable waste products (according to the “bank sampah” principle).

The collected, separated waste is then transported by flatbed or truck to the TPA.
Larger waste items can also be turned in or a plan can be made at the pasar about how to pick up the item(s).

For houses located outside the village, arrangements can be made for when, how and where waste can be placed.
Plastic bottles and cups are to cleaned before turning in. At the TPA, they are temporarily stored inside the building and brought, for example, once or twice a month to Ambon to be recycled. This provides some income. If there is a shredder at the TPS, the plastic can be shredded and transported away in bales.

Addresses:
Batu Merah
Gunung Nona
Jalan Baru
Jalan A.Y. Patty
Poka
Batu Kerbau (Green Moluccas

Individual prices (2013)
Plastic aqua bottles: Rp 1,500 – 2,000 per kg
Plastic aqua cups: Rp 5,000 – 6,000 per kg
Other plastics (cups, bottles): Rp 1,000 per kg.

Hazardous waste is packed in plastic canvas at the TPA and disposed of.
Non-recyclable waste is disposed of at the TPA.

Waste containers at schools and shops must be managed by the concerned parties themselves. The pupils and shopkeepers bring the waste themselves to the collection site at the agreed time. In case of irregular/oversized waste, a request can be made for a flatbed pickup. Register and make arrangements at the pasar, Monday mornings between 7 and 8 o’clock. The men/women stationed there must receive detailed instruction.
Especially during the stage when the waste management plan is being rolled out, it is important to keep residents well informed. The assistants from the individual villages must monitor and provide information, for example, performing an inspection during school break periods.

The advantage of Model A is that people learn which types of waste exist. They learn to dispose of waste in the correct containers at the collection point!!! This model is also relatively inexpensive. The waste pickup truck does not need to drive through the entire village. Fewer waste containers are required. A precondition (and disadvantage?) is that the residents must take the effort to temporarily store their waste and then deliver it at the agreed time.
Recommendation: Definitely during the start-up stage of the project we recommend choosing Model A. In that case, everyone in the village is responsible for separating their own waste and turning it in properly. It also increases understanding and awareness of separating waste. This model also ensures better monitoring.
For the workers who must transport the waste to the TPA, the task is clear and manageable.

Model B:
A set of two waste containers is placed in each sector, including at public buildings and shops. People can deposit their waste in the correct container at any time: one container is for recyclable waste, the other for non-recyclables. The containers are emptied once or twice a week and the waste is transported to the TPA where it is cleaned as necessary, sorted, shredded, packed, shipped off or disposed of.
It is also possible to arrange for each sector’s containers to be transported to a collection point at a set time.
Hazardous waste must be deposited separately in this case, for example, at the municipal government office. Cardboard must also be separated, otherwise it becomes wet.
Oversized waste can be collected by appointment.

The advantage of this model is that people can dispose of their waste at any time.
The disadvantage is that people will make mistakes. There will always be people who mix different types of waste due to carelessness, indifference or lack of understanding. That means long-term instruction and monitoring are required. The waste will also be exposed to water damage from rain while it is stored in the containers. Dogs may also sniff around in the containers and tip them over.
The waste must also be further sorted, so more work is required. The waste collection trucks must also drive by more locations and the drivers must do more work themselves.

Model C:
Everyone is issued two waste containers of their own, each clearly labeled with an identification number and the owner’s name: one container is for recyclable waste, the other is for non-recyclables. Natural (organic) waste must be composted, either at home or collectively in the neighborhood.
At a set time, the containers must be set out on the curb or brought to collection sites. The waste collection trucks drive by and collect the waste in collection containers which are then transported to the TPA/TPS.
Hazardous waste and cardboard must be delivered separately (during dry weather), or delivered to a specific address.
In case of irregular/oversized waste, residents must contact the TPA or the municipal government office. Such waste can be collected, for example, on a monthly basis.

The advantage of this model is that every household has responsibility and control over its own waste.
The disadvantage is that the start-up costs are high and involve buying many plastic containers.
This model would be feasible once waste separation and removal have already been in place and functioning for a while.

6. Workshops, education, clean-ups, kick-off

Workshops and education involve all kinds of activities that serve the purpose of providing instruction, changing habits, increasing understanding and traction and stimulating positive actions and environmental behavior among residents. These activities may include monitoring and instruction, lessons, workshops, clean-up actions, etc.
All kinds of institutions play are part in these activities:
Pemerintah and saniri, schools, churches, mosques, women’s associations, youth clubs.

In Maluku, a number of these educational activities are already in practice: in churches, responsibility for the living environment is regularly incorporated into biblical teachings. Clean-up activities are now included under the scope of the church’s regular work. A plan has been put forward for “Plastic-Free Wednesdays.” The living environment is a topic that is even discussed by children at Sunday school.
Another popular activity among the women’s association PKK and some other groups (such as schools) is to use empty packaging to create arts and crafts. This form of re-using is seen as a method of recycling and the groups involved are proud to take part in it. These activities give packaging a second life and the products can be sold or used around the house.

In the Moluccas, people are used to giving presentations and teaching lessons in front of an audience. A more effective method is to hold a workshop or to work with practical materials and real-life situations. People always learn best by doing, interacting and experiencing things firsthand.

A great amount of material has already been developed in the area of environmental information. However, this has hardly been customized to focus on specific situations such as Saparua where people are still in the early stages of raising awareness and there are currently no facilities for waste removal.
The following educational materials were developed for the Ambon municipal government from 2010 to 2012 under the “Ambon hijau dan bersih” project:
– Brochures for the general public: “Ambon tanpa sampah” and “Membuat kompos”
– Green School concept; see annex “Konsep green school.”
– Loose-leaf annual work plan with recommendations for environmental education lessons on the primary school level.

Green School:
The term “green” is already fairly well-known in Maluku, although its full meaning still needs to be developed. “Green School” is a term used internationally for a school that is committed to operating sustainably, both in terms of education and with regard to its facilities management.
In the case of Maluku, a “Green School” concept has been formulated which can be implemented and monitored without the use of extensive materials or supplies. On Ambon Island, a fierce competition took place among the schools in 2012. Schools are still doing their best to adhere to the eight conditions (see annex “Konsep green school”). The competition to become the best “Green School” has unfortunately not been continued after 2012.

Clean-up activities:
Because of the heavy amount of litter, it is necessary to hold clean-up activities involving large groups of people, ideally all residents. This makes people directly aware of the litter problem created by their own waste and that of others. Information about the various types of waste and their environmental impacts can be provided in a very practical way. People will start a conversation with one another about these topics. They will become more aware of future polluters and their own behavior.
This is a very useful activity in establishing a social network. Perhaps is must be repeated annually (for example, around Christmastime) because there will still be local residents who litter, and waste from elsewhere will wash up on the beaches.

Taking advantage of social structures:
In most of the villages, people are used to volunteering their time for the good of the public (for example, building a new church, cleaning/weeding public spaces, or lending support to a bereaved family). This is organized on a sectorial basis or through various associations. These organizations can be used to contribute to environmental management, to create compost sites and hold clean-up activities. This also ensures social monitoring.

Taking advantage of social media:
Social media is growing in popularity in Indonesia. This provides an opportunity to stimulate and challenge people to take action. One example is a recent action in Raja Ampat in which various groups of residents worked together to hold clean-up activities. See www.stayrajaampat.com/?p=4206

Fishing for Litter:
The global shipping industry is a major source of litter that pollutes the ocean. In Maluku this primarily involves passenger boats. Governments must start a dialog with ship owners. Waste containers and collection containers must be placed on board ships and at the docks, ideally including clear labels for how to separate waste.
The municipal government of Ambon has commissioned a speedboat to trawl for litter in Amboina Bay.

Kick-off:
It is very important to make the necessary preparations for kicking off organized waste management.
The various elements must all be put in place at the same time:
– the landfill must be ready
– the organizational structure must be clear; arrangements made, responsibilities delegated.
– waste management workers must be instructed and equipped with the necessary supplies.
– Workshops and information sessions on composting must already have been held.
– Residents must already have received information on the types of waste and how to separate them.
– Instruction must already have been provided on the method of waste delivery, the time and location.
– A clear system for monitoring and possible sanctions must be in place.

Environment Week
It is advisable to involve the entire village in the kick-off for the waste management program, for example, by organizing a week of activities to raise awareness. This can include:
– An environmental project at the schools
– Discussions within the churches and mosques
– Workshops for women
– As the highlight: clean-up of the entire village. Ideally this can be combined with a large makan patita (without plastic).
Perhaps TVRI can be invited to attend.

Various informative websites:
www.temesirecycling.org
www.stichtingdenoordzee.nl
www.plastcsoupfoundation.org
www.marlisco.eu
www.youtube.com/watch?v=017bBeXhYz4: (Sources and impact of marine litter)
www.rappler.com/nation/69533
www.planeetzee.be
www.milieucentraal.nl
www.cleanuptheworld.org
www.closingtheloop.eu
www.plastictasvrij.nl
www.svzo.nl (Voluntary Litter Clean-up Foundation / Stichting Vrijwillige Afvalopruimers)
www.dw.de/masalah-sampah-plastik

7. Composting

Composting is the natural process by which natural (organic) waste is consumed by soil organisms and broken down through the activity of bacteria and mold. The waste is converted into new nutrients which can be absorbed from the soil by the roots of plants. Composting is one phase in the continual natural cycle. It has been going on for thousands of years in a continuing food cycle (see Ch. 1).

Organic waste consists of all waste from living or dead organisms. This means it is naturally degradable and poses no threat to the environment. You can simply dispose of it in your garden or in the forest. Even if it winds up in the ocean, it is still not a threat. Microscopic organisms, molds and bacteria make sure that it quickly decomposes/converts into new nutrients.

But why would you simply discard this natural waste? It can be used to make fertile compost to grow flowers or vegetables. In that case, it’s important not to mix it with other types of waste: it has to be appetizing to the microscopic organisms!
This organic waste can be used to create compost for any home or any small group of homes. If the waste has to be stored for a longer period of time, it quickly begins to rot and decay (compost). That’s why there must be a place close to home where this waste can be immediately deposited and composted. In the brochure (see annex), there is a description of how you can create and manage your own compost site.

Examples of compost sites
It is recommended that you do not throw cooked or prepared foods or slaughter waste onto the compost heap. These waste materials stink and attract rats and flies. Excrement from carnivorous animals (like dogs and cats) should also not be thrown onto the compost heap.

Examples of natural waste that can easily be composted:
– fallen leaves and flowers
– broken down twigs
– fruit peels
– vegetable waste
– wood shavings
– unfinished wood scraps
– crushed eggshells
– tea and coffee dregs
– weeds
– (small amounts of) unprinted, shredded paper (egg cartons, for example).

When composting, a distinction is made between “brown” and “green” organic waste. Brown waste refers to dryer, harder materials like tree bark, twigs, dried out plants, hard fruit skins. Green waste refers to fresh grass, vegetable waste, soft fruit waste. It is best to alternate between green and brown waste and to mix the two.

In the annex “Membuat kompos,” you can read about how to compost.

8. Obstacles

Initiatives
Several years ago, a proposal was put forward together with a plan to create a landfill and implement waste removal for the village of Ihamahu (Sampahgroep Ihamahu: Charlie Hitipeuw, Magda Pattiiha, John Pattiiha, Ada Lilipaly-de Voogt).
In Itawaka, multiple discussions have taken place between the raja and saniri members to bring attention to the waste problem and to take steps toward reducing and eliminating it (Max Wattimena).
In Tuhaha, the pastor and his wife have arranged for an information session to be held for the women’s association.
In Haria, a proposal is in the making, including strong plans for clean-up activities. The proposal extends to the entire island, possibly also including Nusalauy and Haruku (Kees Lafeber).
Obstacles
Various experiences have shown that there are a number of obstacles to watch out for:
– The most important is the difference between management culture and organizational structure. People are accustomed to a top-down structure in which it is uncommon and undesirable to come forward with bottom-up initiatives. This also causes people to take less personal responsibility.
– People are used to waiting things out and shrugging responsibility; also because it is unknown territory that affects all of society. Governments are afraid they will not gain any traction; ordinary citizens either do not dare to come forward with plans or they lack adequate oversight over the issue.
– People have other priorities even though they acknowledge the problem.
– There is a lack of understanding that, with the modernization of society and increasing prosperity and consumption, people have an obligation to view sustainability as a starting principle and to take care of the environment.
– People lack knowledge of the impacts of waste and other threats to the environment.
– Habits with regard to waste can be improved in a number of ways. Many people simply throw their waste (empty packages) on the ground, sweep it off their own kintal or dump it in the sea.
– People treat their own living environment recklessly: coral reefs are being trampled, the beaches excavated, old-growth forests chopped down without replenishment, endangered species hunted.
– People lack discipline when it comes to pledges and responsibilities. Commitments are not set in stone and are not always fulfilled, or they are changed. There is a great deal of ad-hoc policy.

In Ihamahu, a plan reached an advanced stage in 2012: a plot of community property was made available to serve as a landfill. Specific plans were made for the delivery of waste and a proposal was submitted by an official from the province. Information sessions were held with various stakeholders. Yet this plan is now on ice because Ibu Raja took over leadership as the head of the local PKK. She was not open to input, either from the Netherlands or from Ihamahu itself. Following multiple confrontations, she stepped down, but then Bapa Raja also began to run the plan into the ground. The saniri made no effort to ensure that the project would succeed. In 2015, a new raja election took place. There was hope that this would bring new stimulus for the sampah cause.

This example illustrates how plans can run aground because, as in this case, people watch and wait for the raja who is expected to direct everything (or not). This calls for a working project group per village that makes approval or disapproval of plans independent of any single individual, even if it is the raja. However, this is a Western approach… Furthermore, there are signs from Maluku Province that well-constructed initiatives will receive support.